Download PDF by Geoffrey A. Taylor: Bacteriology for Nurses

By Geoffrey A. Taylor

ISBN-10: 0433321504

ISBN-13: 9780433321507

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Sample text

The body tissues may also actively kill bacteria. The skin secretes substances which will very rapidly destroy some species of micro-organisms. If such organisms are applied to the surface of the normal skin none will be found after a short period of exposure to the secretions. There are, however, many species which are unaffected by contact with the skin. The hydrochloric acid secreted in the stomach is also capable of destroying micro-organisms and will therefore prevent entry of many organisms into the intestinal tract.

The small blood vessels increase in diameter and the rate of blood flow increases ; the area becomes redder and warmer than its surroundings. The walls of the blood vessels allow plasma to escape into the tissue spaces and the white cells of the blood migrate into the tissue. This causes a swelling of the part. The white cells of the blood, together with certain tissue cells, move towards the bacteria and attempt to ingest them by a process known as PHAGOCYTOSIS (Fig. 10). In some instances phagocytosis may kill the bacterium, in others the white blood cell (phagocyte) may itself be killed.

Preparations such as these are known as KILLED VACCINES a n d ATTENUATED VACCINES respectively. It is possible to protect against some diseases by giving the patient a very mild subclinical infection which does no harm but confers a high degree of immunity against a subsequent natural infection. Vaccination for smallpox and live oral poliomyelitis vaccine are examples of this. If antitoxic immunity is considered to be the most suitable method of defence, the toxin is rendered non-toxic by various means and then given by injection.

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Bacteriology for Nurses by Geoffrey A. Taylor

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