By Inc. BarCharts
Step by step define of the U.S. method for investigating & prosecuting felony offenses - from arrest to disposition.
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Extra info for BarCharts QuickStudy Criminal Justice
Additionally, a culture of complicity and approval within the police organisation, the criminal justice system, and society at large, makes it increasingly difficult to acknowledge this form of police deviance as a larger problem of state crime. This chapter describes the theoretical background to the study of police use of deadly force. Relevant literature on police violence from other countries, especially the USA, UK, Australia, and Canada is discussed. A review of research on police use of deadly force reveals three major approaches to explain police violence: sociological and structural theories, organisational and subcultural theories, and individual and situational theories.
On the whole, situational theories are of limited value for this research, apart from being part of the justification put forward by some officers to explain use of 18 1 Police and the Use of Deadly Force force decisions. The situational nature of the citizen–police encounter is not explored, especially as encounters took place, usually shrouded in secrecy, in circumstances where it was either not possible or not feasible to observe them, and also because they appeared to be pre-planned and pre-determined operations rather than the spontaneous result of situational determinants.
It is questionable whether only a few officers can be blamed for using excessive force. However, individualistic explanations find favour with the police and politicians as they enable them to narrow the focus on a few officers and obfuscate other more serious organisational and larger social issues. It allows them the possibility of being seen as doing something about the problem (should it be socially desirable to do so) by either eliminating or retraining a handful of “problem” officers – solutions that are economical, instantaneous, and populist.
BarCharts QuickStudy Criminal Justice by Inc. BarCharts