By Bertram Katzung
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Extra resources for Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (LANGE Basic Science) 10th edition
The Kd of the agonistreceptor interaction determines what fraction (B/Bmax ) of total receptors will be occupied at a given free concentration (C) of agonist regardless of the receptor concentration: Imagine a responding cell with four receptors and four effectors. Here the number of effectors does not limit the maximal response, and the receptors are not spare in number. Consequently, an agonist present at a concentration equal to the K d will occupy 50% of the receptors, and half of the effectors will be activated, producing a half-maximal response (ie, two receptors stimulate two effectors).
Binding of hormone to the ligand-binding domain triggers release of hsp90. This allows the DNA-binding and transcription-activating domains of the receptor to fold into their functionally active conformations, so that the activated receptor can initiate transcription of target genes. Figure 2–6. Mechanism of glucocorticoid action. The glucocorticoid receptor polypeptide is schematically depicted as a protein with three distinct domains. A heat-shock protein, hsp90, binds to the receptor in the absence of hormone and prevents folding into the active conformation of the receptor.
In contrast, cAMP and phosphoinositide second messengers act together to stimulate glucose release from the liver. Phosphorylation: A Common Theme Almost all second messenger signaling involves reversible phosphorylation, which performs two principal functions in signaling: amplification and flexible regulation. In amplification, rather like GTP bound to a G protein, the attachment of a phosphoryl group to a serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue powerfully amplifies the initial regulatory signal by recording a molecular memory that the pathway has been activated; dephosphorylation erases the memory, taking a longer time to do so than is required for dissociation of an allosteric ligand.
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (LANGE Basic Science) 10th edition by Bertram Katzung