By Malcolm David Eckel
Bhaviveka (ca. 500–560 ce) lived at a time of bizarre creativity and ferment within the heritage of Indian Buddhist philosophy. The Mahayana flow was once rising as a full of life and self-conscious highbrow strength, whereas the sooner traditions of the eighteen “schools” (nikaya) resisted the authority of the Mahayana and endured to complicated the elemental strategies of Buddhist thought.
Bhaviveka’s “Verses at the middle of the center approach” (Madhyamakahrdayakarika˙) with their remark, referred to as “The Flame of cause” (Tarkajvala), provide a different and authoritative account of the highbrow ameliorations that stirred the Buddhist neighborhood during this artistic period.
Bhaviveka and His Buddhist rivals supplies a transparent and obtainable translation of Chapters four and five of this article: the chapters at the Sravakas, or eighteen colleges, and the Yogacaras, Bhaviveka’s most crucial Mahayana rivals. the interpretation is brought by means of an essay that situates Bhaviveka within the highbrow context of sixth-century India, and it really is followed through copious notes, commenting on Bhaviveka’s resources and explaining his arguable strategy. The booklet additionally includes a severe version of the Sanskrit textual content of Bhaviveka’s verses and the Tibetan translation of the verses and statement.
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Additional info for Bhaviveka and His Buddhist Opponents: Chapters 4 and 5 of the verses on the Heart of the Middle Way (Madhyamakahrdayakarikah) with the commentary entitled The Flame of Reason (Tarkajvala)
The text gives a useful account of the basic principles of each tradition, but it reads less like a formal treatise and more like a manual of debate. " The difference is that Bhaviveka does more than repeat the opponent's position; he gives a full refutation. Here Jonathan Z. Smith's comment that difference is a "political matter" takes on a local habitation and a name. The location is the conflict for patronage and prestige in sixth- and seventh-century India, and the name is debate. Once the text has been situated in this context, it provokes a whole new set of questions.
To prove that everything is empty, the Bhaviveka of The Lamp of Wisdom and The Heart of the Middle Way relies largely on arguments drawn from causation. The Lamp of Wisdom begins with Nagarjuna's argument that nothing can arise ultimately from itself, from something else, from both, or from nothing at all. " As Tom Tillemans has pointed out (1984: 357), the "neither one nor many argument" became the central idea around which scholars like Santarak�ita structured their presentation of the Madhyamaka.
The third type of doxography also presents each system in a separate chapter but does not attempt to refute them. The purpose of this doxography is simply descriptive; it does not probe for the weak points in an opponent's position and it does not develop any kind of controversial response. The classic example of this third type of doxogra phy is Haribhadra's Compendium of Six Views, just as the classic example of the second is Bhaviveka's Heart of the Middle Way. In the Tibetan canon, Bhaviveka's verses are accompanied by an "auto-commentary" entitled The Flame ofReason (Tarkajvala, abbreviated TJ).
Bhaviveka and His Buddhist Opponents: Chapters 4 and 5 of the verses on the Heart of the Middle Way (Madhyamakahrdayakarikah) with the commentary entitled The Flame of Reason (Tarkajvala) by Malcolm David Eckel