By Noboru Motohashi
Heterocyclic chemistry is the largest department of chemistry protecting two-thirds of the chemical literature and this ebook covers the recent themes of frontier learn summarized through reputed scientists within the field.
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Additional info for Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles I
For an understanding of the bioavailability and mechanistic pathways of the cytoprotection by IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, commercially known as ActiVin), a series of in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out. On the comparative protective abilities of GSPE, and vitamins C and E, their single and combination administrations were assessed against a smokeless tobacco extract (STE)-induced oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in a primary culture of normal human oral keratinocytes.
These increases were not inﬂuenced by the oral consumption of pycnogenol or aspirin just before smoking. However, the increased platelet reactivity yielding to the aggregation 2 h after smoking could be prevented by 500 mg aspirin or 100 mg pycnogenol in 22 German heavy smokers. In a group of 16 American smokers, the blood pressure increased after smoking. It was unchanged after intake of 500 mg aspirin or 125 mg pycnogenol. In another group of 19 American smokers, the increased platelet aggregation was more signiﬁcantly reduced by 200 mg pycnogenol than either 150 or 100 mg pycnogenol.
Aspirin increased signiﬁcantly the bleeding time from 167 to 236 s while pycnogenol did not. These results suggest that pycnogenol is effective for the prevention of platelet aggregation . The antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extracts was examined in cholesterol-fed rabbits. 1% and 1% in diets (w/w)] did not change the serum lipid proﬁle, but reduced the level of the cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2 -azo-bis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH), the aortic malonaldehyde (MDA) content and severe atherosclerosis.
Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles I by Noboru Motohashi